Understanding Your Testosterone Analysis

Testosterone is the main androgen hormone in men; its synthesis is performed almost exclusively in testicular Leydig cells. Testosterone secretion is controlled by the pituitary luteinizing hormone LH product and is subject to a negative feedback mediated by the hypothalamus and pituitary. Most of the circulating testosterone is bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG = sex hormone binding globulin).

Testosterone is involved both in the development of male sexual characteristics and function in maintaining the prostate and seminal vesicles.

Recommendations for determination of testosterone:

In men:

a) Clinical suspicion of androgen deficiency (primary hypogonadism, hypopituitarism, Klinefelter syndrome, Down syndrome, delayed puberty, sexual impotence, infertility, estrogen, cirrhosis);

b) Clinical suspicion of androgen excess: adrenocortical tumors, early puberty.

Limitations and interference

Testosterone concentrations show episodic fluctuations, and circadian cycles. This is why the analysis of a single sample has proven to be clinically relevant only in 68% of cases. So it is recommended to harvest 3 samples in the range of 1 hour to determine testosterone in the sample resulting (link) from the mixture of the three serums.

Total testosterone may be normal in some men with symptoms of androgen deficiency (due to increased levels of SHBG) or in some women with hirsutism. In these cases it is recommended to determine free testosterone.

Almost all severe diseases, especially liver, kidney and circulation can cause decreases in testosterone concentration.

Drug Interference

All below substances can lead to higher or lower than normal testosterone levels:

– Valproic acid, barbiturates, bromocriptine, clomifene, estrogen, phenytoin, flutamide, gonadotropin (men), naloxone, rifampicin. (Increase)Analytical Interference

– Androgens, carbamazepine, cyclophosphamide, cyproterone, dexamethasone, diazoxide, diethylstilbestrol (1 mg or more), digoxin (in men), ethanol (men alcoholics), phenothiazines, gemfibrozil, glucocorticoids, glucose analogues of GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) in continuous administration, halothane, ketoconazole, magnesium, metoprolol, metirapon, spironolactone, tetracycline, verapamil. (Decrease)

– Oral contraceptives, cimetidine, finasteride, pravastatin, tamoxifen. (Variable effects)

Analytical Interference

May cause interference with some components of the kit and leads to inconclusive following:

– Treatment with biotin in high doses (> 5 mg / day); it is therefore recommended that blood donation to be made after at least 8 hours after the last administration;

– Very high titers of anti-avidin and anti-ruthenium.

Testicular Conditions which Affect Testosterone Production

There are two primary disorders affecting large external male reproductive organs. These include penile dysfunction and testicular diseases. Penile and testicular dysfunctions can affect testosterone production, male fertility and sexual function.

The testicles are part of the male reproductive system. The testicles are two oval organs about the size of two large olives. They are located inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. Testicles secrete male hormones, including testosterone, and produce sperm, the male reproductive cells. Testicles can cause severe disease disorders, including hormonal imbalances and infertility disorders of sexual life.

Among the most common disorders of the testicles we find trauma, testicular torsion of the testicle, testicular cancer, epididymitis and hypogonadism.

Testicular Trauma

Because the testicles are located in the scrotum, which hangs outside the body, they do not have the protection of muscles and bones. This makes them more prone to hitting, striking, kicking or stress, which occurs most often during contact sports. Males can protect their testicles by wearing athletic cups while engaging in such activities.

Trauma to the testes can produce severe pain, ecchymosis (bruising) and / or swelling. In most cases, the testes – which are made of spongy material – can absorb the shock of an injury without serious damage (link).

A rare form of testicular trauma, called testicular rupture occurs when the testicle receives a direct blow or is crushed by the surface of the pelvis. This type of injury can cause bleeding in the scrotum. In severe cases, surgery is necessary to repair the tear, thus saving his testicle.

Testicular Torsion

Within the scrotum, the testicles are secured at each end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Sometimes this cordon around the testicle gets twisted, cutting off the blood supply to the testis. Symptoms of testicular torsion include sudden and severe pain, swelling and enlargement of the affected testicle.

This condition, which occurs mostly in men younger than 25 years, can result from an injury to the testicles or activities that require a great effort. It can also occur without an obvious cause.


Testicular torsion requires emergency treatment. Treatment usually consists of correcting the problem through surgery. Testicular function can be saved if the condition is diagnosed and treated immediately. If the blood supply to the testicle is interrupted for a long period of time, the testicle can be permanently damaged and may require surgical removal.

“Macho” Qualities – Scientifically Proven

The fact that women are attracted to men look “macho” with strong chin and broad face, one thing is known. Now new research suggests that these men do not just rely on muscle and aggression

In fact, researchers say, people with wide faces are more prone to sacrifice for the team they belong to. The research comes to prove that the general opinion of people about macho men is wrong. If you are among those who believe that these individuals are uncooperative, cold and even rogue, the scientific evidence come to contradict.

Exposure to high levels of testosterone during intrauterine life can lead to the development of a fetus that, at maturity, will have a wider front, inspiring masculinity through small eyes and strong chin. These features are starting to become more noticeable puberty, when testosterone levels rise in the boys’ bodies. Because testosterone is associated with aggression, some men with wider faces are considered violent or warriors.

causes of testosterone

Because they considered that the association between these individuals and violence is just a coincidence, scientists at the University St. Andrews, UK, conducted a study in which subjects received money in order to use them in a team game. The money could be used for them, or could be “sacrificed” to help the whole team. Half the participants were told that their results will be compared with other teams at the University St. Andrews, while the remaining subjects were warned that their results will be compared with their rivals of some students at the University of Edinburgh.

The results showed that the higher the man’s face was wider, the country it less willing to cooperate where it was compared with a colleague from the same university. But when faced with a rival university competitive, macho men became very competitive, being willing, more than other participants to sacrifice their money for the whole group.

The study results come to show that macho appearance can have both good aspects and bad: although men featured very masculine may be generally more aggressive, they can show at the same time warm and skipjack in certain circumstances, such as when it’s about helping teammates.

Increasing testosterone levels through sport

Experts believe that an excellent way to increase the level of testosterone is the sport in all its forms, which helps eliminate fat excess (fat tissue convert testosterone into estrogen, the female sex hormone) and building muscle (which helps to supplement testosterone that the body produces).

Regular exercise can play an important role in preventing the negative consequences of low testosterone levels. A study published in the Journal Andrology showed that the 32 men involved in the research, already diagnosed with type II diabetes and testosterone deficiency, have managed to improve male hormone levels in 52 weeks of diet and sport, under the supervision of specialists. This system worked even for participants who have not received testosterone replacement therapy.

It is a known fact that physical movement already has many benefits on the body. Losing weight is one of them, but it was joined by improved bone density and mood, both affected by the low level of testosterone.

Exercise for an optimum level of testosterone

Each type of exercise has its advantages, but experts suggest a specific approach to training for men who are trying to stimulate the production of testosterone (the more if the hormone problem was an obstacle to sustain strenuous workouts in the past).

Resistance training generally has a direct impact on increasing testosterone levels, helping to prevent more symptoms of this hormonal deficiency (tiredness, loss of muscle mass, weakening body strength, decreased sex drive and installing sleep disorders). So, the steps you should take are the following:

– Concentrate on lifting weights. For a big boost in testosterone production, the recommended exercises are weight lifting and resistance workouts that help muscle growth and are more effective than running lane, jogging or cycling.

Call and cardio exercises. Exercises that require the cardiovascular system should not be either ignored them, especially when it comes to the impact they have on weight loss and heart health. They indirectly grow cholesterol levels in the body, so experts recommend combining sessions of aerobic exercise with strength and muscle development.

Seek the help of a coach. If you did not exercise regularly in the past and you have a good physical condition, it is best to start training under the guidance of a coach. Fitness professionals will recommend exactly which exercises you need, depending on your age, weight and other health problems that face troublesome symptoms (fatigue, sleep disorders etc.).

Carefully select the time of day to do sport. Testosterone levels vary from time to time of day (usually morning is higher and lower in the afternoon). The researchers found that strength training can have a stronger effect on testosterone in the evening. In conclusion, the results that you expect after sports program are expected to be even better if your workout schedule is in the second half of the day, not morning.

Work as many muscle groups at the same time. When requesting more muscle groups during strength exercises, you help the body more to effectively supplement testosterone production.

Use heavy. Instead of using lower weights and more repetitions to perform, try to lift as heavy and fewer repetitions executed.

Take short breaks between reps – This way allows muscles to remain at a higher degree of stress and the amount of testosterone is supplemented better.