There are two primary disorders affecting large external male reproductive organs. These include penile dysfunction and testicular diseases. Penile and testicular dysfunctions can affect testosterone production, male fertility and sexual function.
The testicles are part of the male reproductive system. The testicles are two oval organs about the size of two large olives. They are located inside the scrotum, the loose sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. Testicles secrete male hormones, including testosterone, and produce sperm, the male reproductive cells. Testicles can cause severe disease disorders, including hormonal imbalances and infertility disorders of sexual life.
Among the most common disorders of the testicles we find trauma, testicular torsion of the testicle, testicular cancer, epididymitis and hypogonadism.
Because the testicles are located in the scrotum, which hangs outside the body, they do not have the protection of muscles and bones. This makes them more prone to hitting, striking, kicking or stress, which occurs most often during contact sports. Males can protect their testicles by wearing athletic cups while engaging in such activities.
Trauma to the testes can produce severe pain, ecchymosis (bruising) and / or swelling. In most cases, the testes – which are made of spongy material – can absorb the shock of an injury without serious damage (link).
A rare form of testicular trauma, called testicular rupture occurs when the testicle receives a direct blow or is crushed by the surface of the pelvis. This type of injury can cause bleeding in the scrotum. In severe cases, surgery is necessary to repair the tear, thus saving his testicle.
Within the scrotum, the testicles are secured at each end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Sometimes this cordon around the testicle gets twisted, cutting off the blood supply to the testis. Symptoms of testicular torsion include sudden and severe pain, swelling and enlargement of the affected testicle.
This condition, which occurs mostly in men younger than 25 years, can result from an injury to the testicles or activities that require a great effort. It can also occur without an obvious cause.
Testicular torsion requires emergency treatment. Treatment usually consists of correcting the problem through surgery. Testicular function can be saved if the condition is diagnosed and treated immediately. If the blood supply to the testicle is interrupted for a long period of time, the testicle can be permanently damaged and may require surgical removal.